The speed of light has an old formula about the

inverse square root of permittivity times permeability.

Here is that epsilon*mu formula:

c^2 = 1 / (epsilon*mu)

Speed of light formula, rev January 20, 2017

The latest wisdom is that c is related to the

proton radius r and two time constants from

the eight dimensional continuum, tau and tau_e.

c = (r sqrt(tau)) / (tau_e * 5.94 * sqrt(1 second))

The constant 5.94 has a proposed named:

the square root of total blue shift.

r = 0.950000 * 10^-15 meters

tau = 5.131534 * 10^-9 seconds

tau_e = 3.810615 * 10^-29 seconds = G tau / k

G = Newton Universal Gravitational Constant

k = Coulomb Constant

tau is calculated by dropping a rock for

1 second and measuring z, height fallen.

tau = NV* 1 second / (zA)

N = number of baryons in Earth

V = proton volume

z = 4.9033 meters on Earth

A = area of Earth at radius R

R = 6,378,000 meters

The speed of light is explained. r is the proton radius and that sets

the scale for the speed of light. Here is the formula:

c = r sqrt(5ns) / (tau_e * 5.94 sqrt(1 second))

Three dimensions are actively flowing for light emission:

r is entering the proton for gravity as a length dimension called z

r is also used to scale Ex, one dimension departing a proton to repel protons

tau is departing the proton for expansion due to time growth

tau_e is entering the proton for magnetism as dimension Ht

Together, those dimensions set the speed of light.

r = 0.950000 * 10^-15 meter

tau = 5.131534 * 10^-9 second

tau_e = 3.810615 * 10^-29 second

Multiply them together to get

c = r sqrt(5ns) / (tau_e * 5.94 sqrt(1 second))

c = 3.007 *10^8 meter/second

8D Summary

1 t Photon uses t in tau

2 x

3 y

4 z

5 Ht Photon uses Ht in tau_e

6 Ex Photon uses Ex in r for formula for c

7 Ey

8 Ez

8D Directions

1 t grows out from proton

2 x drains into proton

3 y drains into proton

4 z drains into proton

5 Ht drains into proton

6 Ex grows out from proton

7 Ey grows out from proton

8 Ez grows out from proton

Conclusion: The speed of light is determined by the proton radius and two time

constants. The eight dimensions of the continua are flowing as a fluid in

and out of protons. Electrons are paired to protons so they are involved

in changing an atomic orbital wave function into a photon with two

dimensions: Ex / Ht

The mathematical expression that models c shows that the

speed of light is from permeability and permittivity

definitions in the neo-Maxwell essay. That is linked, at

right.

$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$

Time Dilation in Molecular Chemistry

When chemicals are accelerated continuously by means

of electromagnetic forces, time dilation makes

the reactions occur more slowly. For example, a

cyclotron or a cosmic ray decelerating in an atmosphere.

A new theory explains why a "twin's youth phenomenon" seems to make one twin stay younger and one twin nanoparticle age at

the rate we also experience.

Three reasons work to make Time Dilation in Molecular

Chemistry

1 Protons cause gravity. Electrons do not cause gravity.

2 Each proton is paired with an electron

3 Molecular orbitals and wave functions are activated

by the proton's internal "momentum of free space" due

to gravity plus acceleration.

Discussion

Time Dilation occurs in Molecular Chemistry because

acceleration of a proton has different repercussions

than acceleration of an electron. Electrons do not

cause gravity, so they do not interact as a proton does

when its gravity interacts with the acceleration.

The proton's interaction during acceleration causes

a distortion in the orbitals in a molecule. That different

orbital size makes chemical reactions slow down.

1 Protons cause gravity. Electrons do not cause gravity.

Mass is area of continuum. Electron mass can react to

gravity or acceleration, but mass cannot cause gravity.

Proton volume causes gravity. That flow of continuum

internally powers EM in a proton and four dimensions

emerge as a mirror image of the usual four. An 8D

model is being proposed. See links.

2 Charge neutrality can be shown to be a pairing of

one proton with one electron, and a geometric reason can be provided to select which proton is paired with a free

electron or one in an orbital.

3 Molecular orbitals and wavefunctions are activated

by the proton's internal "momentum of free space" due to gravity. The 4D gravity continuum is flowing in each proton.

Four more dimensions make up molecular orbitals. They are

named next:

Dimensions in proton, direction

1 t out

2 x in

3 y in

4 z in

5 Ht in

6 Ex out

7 Ey out

8 Ez out

During acceleration, the time is diminished

and a length increases. That has traction into

dimensions 5678 so orbitals get distorted, causing time

dilation of reactions. Slowed aging occurs for a

nano particle during high accelerations that a

human twin could not endure.

inverse square root of permittivity times permeability.

Here is that epsilon*mu formula:

c^2 = 1 / (epsilon*mu)

Speed of light formula, rev January 20, 2017

The latest wisdom is that c is related to the

proton radius r and two time constants from

the eight dimensional continuum, tau and tau_e.

c = (r sqrt(tau)) / (tau_e * 5.94 * sqrt(1 second))

The constant 5.94 has a proposed named:

the square root of total blue shift.

r = 0.950000 * 10^-15 meters

tau = 5.131534 * 10^-9 seconds

tau_e = 3.810615 * 10^-29 seconds = G tau / k

G = Newton Universal Gravitational Constant

k = Coulomb Constant

tau is calculated by dropping a rock for

1 second and measuring z, height fallen.

tau = NV* 1 second / (zA)

N = number of baryons in Earth

V = proton volume

z = 4.9033 meters on Earth

A = area of Earth at radius R

R = 6,378,000 meters

The speed of light is explained. r is the proton radius and that sets

the scale for the speed of light. Here is the formula:

c = r sqrt(5ns) / (tau_e * 5.94 sqrt(1 second))

Three dimensions are actively flowing for light emission:

r is entering the proton for gravity as a length dimension called z

r is also used to scale Ex, one dimension departing a proton to repel protons

tau is departing the proton for expansion due to time growth

tau_e is entering the proton for magnetism as dimension Ht

Together, those dimensions set the speed of light.

r = 0.950000 * 10^-15 meter

tau = 5.131534 * 10^-9 second

tau_e = 3.810615 * 10^-29 second

Multiply them together to get

c = r sqrt(5ns) / (tau_e * 5.94 sqrt(1 second))

c = 3.007 *10^8 meter/second

8D Summary

1 t Photon uses t in tau

2 x

3 y

4 z

5 Ht Photon uses Ht in tau_e

6 Ex Photon uses Ex in r for formula for c

7 Ey

8 Ez

8D Directions

1 t grows out from proton

2 x drains into proton

3 y drains into proton

4 z drains into proton

5 Ht drains into proton

6 Ex grows out from proton

7 Ey grows out from proton

8 Ez grows out from proton

_{}^{}Conclusion: The speed of light is determined by the proton radius and two time

constants. The eight dimensions of the continua are flowing as a fluid in

and out of protons. Electrons are paired to protons so they are involved

in changing an atomic orbital wave function into a photon with two

dimensions: Ex / Ht

The mathematical expression that models c shows that the

speed of light is from permeability and permittivity

definitions in the neo-Maxwell essay. That is linked, at

right.

$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$

Time Dilation in Molecular Chemistry

When chemicals are accelerated continuously by means

of electromagnetic forces, time dilation makes

the reactions occur more slowly. For example, a

cyclotron or a cosmic ray decelerating in an atmosphere.

A new theory explains why a "twin's youth phenomenon" seems to make one twin stay younger and one twin nanoparticle age at

the rate we also experience.

Three reasons work to make Time Dilation in Molecular

Chemistry

1 Protons cause gravity. Electrons do not cause gravity.

2 Each proton is paired with an electron

3 Molecular orbitals and wave functions are activated

by the proton's internal "momentum of free space" due

to gravity plus acceleration.

Discussion

Time Dilation occurs in Molecular Chemistry because

acceleration of a proton has different repercussions

than acceleration of an electron. Electrons do not

cause gravity, so they do not interact as a proton does

when its gravity interacts with the acceleration.

The proton's interaction during acceleration causes

a distortion in the orbitals in a molecule. That different

orbital size makes chemical reactions slow down.

1 Protons cause gravity. Electrons do not cause gravity.

Mass is area of continuum. Electron mass can react to

gravity or acceleration, but mass cannot cause gravity.

Proton volume causes gravity. That flow of continuum

internally powers EM in a proton and four dimensions

emerge as a mirror image of the usual four. An 8D

model is being proposed. See links.

2 Charge neutrality can be shown to be a pairing of

one proton with one electron, and a geometric reason can be provided to select which proton is paired with a free

electron or one in an orbital.

3 Molecular orbitals and wavefunctions are activated

by the proton's internal "momentum of free space" due to gravity. The 4D gravity continuum is flowing in each proton.

Four more dimensions make up molecular orbitals. They are

named next:

Dimensions in proton, direction

1 t out

2 x in

3 y in

4 z in

5 Ht in

6 Ex out

7 Ey out

8 Ez out

During acceleration, the time is diminished

and a length increases. That has traction into

dimensions 5678 so orbitals get distorted, causing time

dilation of reactions. Slowed aging occurs for a

nano particle during high accelerations that a

human twin could not endure.

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