The force equations from Newton and Coulomb are manipulated to insert the idea of a time traction factor.

W1 = k/G = time traction factor = 1.3466419*10^20

where

k is the Coulomb Constant 8.99*10^9 Newtons meter^2 / Coulomb^2

G is the Newton Constant 6.67*10^-11 Newton meter^2 / kg^2

For gravity, the protons and neutrons sink space and source time, resulting in a momentum of free space p

p = V/tau

where V is proton volume and tau is a time constant

tau = 5.1315 ns

For Coulomb repulsion of protons, W1 is used to scale the time constant tau to become a faster time constant, tau_e

tau_e = tau / W1 = 3.810615*10^-29 seconds

That is how much time a proton consumes while producing its own volume in space of the electromagnetic continuum. The space is Ex*Ey*Ez. The time is called Ht in the electricity continuum.

The force between a number N1 of charges at a distance R from N2

charges is now expressed by the proton radius r using 8 dimensions:

f = (r^2) N1 N2 (2^8) meter^3 / (R second)^2

This uses r=0.95fm.

When R = 1 meter, two protons repel with

f = 256 r^2 = 2.31 * 10^-28 Newtons

the simple formula gives the right answer

without k, Coulomb's Constant.

Coulomb's Constant is obsoleted by r and the

Gravity Volume Theory in 8D

$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$

Begin February 16, 2017

Numerical verification of neo-Maxwell Magnitudes

2/16/2017 acf see Jan. 20 formulas jpeg manuscript

The following test of the electromagnetic relation to gravity

is to verify the precision, compared to old science of

2013 and the past. The Gravity Volume Theory is giving

correct answers using ideas for a traction from gravity to EM.

Here are Maxwell's variables to be examined:

E

q charge

epsilon permittivity

D

mu permeability

B

H

f force between repelling protons

The charge q was defined after its formula was

found inside the E field intensity equation. The following verification

of the E magnitude formula uses q as a factor. The inner details of the

charge area q are left as the next task after E.

Seven digits of precision are used.

$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$

E : Electric Field = meter/sec^2 = Volt/meter

$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$

see geometric reasoning in ref 1

see Periodic Table of Units of Measure for primitive units.

r = 0.950000 fm = proton radius from negative infinity

R = 1.000000 meter = test is normalized, n=1 per meter^3

tau = 5.131534 ns = conservation of continuum constant

tau_e = G tau / k = 3.810615 * 10^-29 econd

q = 1.6021765 * 10^-19 eter^2

q is in Coulombs

econd is dimension 5, eter is 6, 7, or 8. See ref 1.

G is the Newton constant, k is the Coulomb Constant

Num = 231.04*10^-30

Den = 1.6021765*10^-19

E = 144.2038*10^-11 meter/sec^2

expected value at 1 meter for 1 proton per cubic meter

is E=f/q=qk/R^2 = qk = 1.6*8.99*10^(-19+9) = 14.41734*10^-10

error ratio 1.442038/1.441734 = 1.015034

E = 1.442038*10^-9 meter/sec^2 Electric Field Intensity, volts per meter

where a normalized 1 meter distance is used. Also normalized will be:

v = 1 meter per second, t = 1 second, n = 1 particle per cubic meter,

M = 1 paired proton and electron.

$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$

q = charge of proton ~= meter^2 = Coulomb

$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$

see geometric reasoning in essay ref. 1

Num = sqrt(8.57375*10^-46) = 2.928091*10^-23

Den = sqrt(3.365102*10^-10)*10 = 1.834421*10^-4

q = 1.596193*10^-19 meter^2

$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$

epsilon : permittivity = second^2/meter = Farad/meter

$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$

See geometric reasoning in essay ref. 3

epsilon = Numerator / Denominator

Num = tau_e^2 * 5.22792 meter^2

Den = r^3

Num = 75.91351*10^-58

Den = 0.857375 * 10^-45

epsilon = 88.54178*10^-13 second^2 / meter

$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$

D : Electric Displacement= 1/1 =dimensionless = Coulomb/meter^2

$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$

See geometric reasoning in essay ref. 4. D was

found from multiplying epsilon times E

D = Numerator / Denominator

Num = (tau_e^2) * n * 5.227 * 256

Den = qr

Num = (3.810615*10^-29)^2 * 1338.112

Num = 1.943043*10^(4-58)

Den = 1.522067*10^-34

D = 1.276581*10^-20

expected value = epsilon E = 8.854188*1.442038*10^(-9-12)

D = epsilon E = 1.276807*10^-20 expected dimensionless aspect called displacement

$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$

mu : permeability of free space = meter^-1 = Henry/meter

$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$

See geometric reasoning in essay ref. 5

mu = Numerator / Denominator

Num = r * 6.7878 second

Den = tau meter^2

Num = 6.44841*10^-15

Den = 5.131534*10^-9

mu = 1.256624*10^-6 meter^-1

expected value 1.256637*10^-6 Henry per meter

$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$

H : Magnetic Field Intensity = meter/second = Amp/meter

$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$

See geometric reasoning in essay ref. 7. The H

field intensity formula was forged using the

axiom powers theorem. That allows a theoretician

to exponentiate r and tau to any power when

justified by a reason.

H = Numerator / Denominator

Num =sqrt(3 r tau ) Mv

Den = v1

v1 is 1 meter per second for this normalized test.

M=1, number of proton electron pairs

Num = sqrt(14.62487*10^-24)

Num = 3.824247*10^-12

H = 3.824247*10^-12 meter per second

Expected value for H: E/H is Z, the characteristic

impedance of free space.

Z = 376.7303 ohms = E/H

H = E/376.7303

E = 1.442038*10^-9

H expected = 0.003827773*10-9

H expected = 3.827773*10-12 Amps per meter

$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$

B : Magnetic flux density = second^-1 = Webers/meter^2

$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$

See geometric reasoning in essay ref. 6

B = Numerator / Denominator

Num = sqrt(r^3) * 11.7568

Den = sqrt(tau)

Num = sqrt(9.5^3 * 10^-48)*11.7568

Num = 344.25046*10^-24

Den = 7.163472*10^-5

B = 4.805637*10^-20 per second

expected values B= mu H

B = 4 pi * 10^-7 * (3.824247*10^-12 )

B = 4.805692*10^-20 Webers per square meter

$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$

force = qE = meter^3 / second^2 = Newton

$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$

See geometric reasoning in essay ref. 8. That essay is about

the force with which two protons repel, based on gravity

volume theory. The radius r and time constant tau are used

as quantum numbers.

f = Numerator / Denominator = qE

Num = r^2 2^8 N1 N2 meter^6

Den = R^2 second^2 = 1

Num = 231.04*10^-30

f = 2.3104*10^-28 Newtons

where N1 and N2 are the numbers of charged particles

in two objects separated by a distance R. N1 = 1 for

this normalized test. N2=1.

Auxilliary Relations

m/(alpha r) = q/(4 pi a) = 2.41 Angstroms

alpha = a second / (tau meter * sqrt(2))

Time Constant to Conserve Continuum

tau = NV second / (zA)

N is number of baryons in star, V is proton volume,

z is height fallen in 1 second, A is area of star at radius R.

mp / me = q^3 alpha r k pi / h^2

a = Bohr Radius

alpha = fine structure constant 1/137.03

m is proton mass

References

1 Protons Repel protons due to space growth

2

3

4

5

6

7

8

February 17, 2017

W1 = k/G = time traction factor = 1.3466419*10^20

where

k is the Coulomb Constant 8.99*10^9 Newtons meter^2 / Coulomb^2

G is the Newton Constant 6.67*10^-11 Newton meter^2 / kg^2

For gravity, the protons and neutrons sink space and source time, resulting in a momentum of free space p

p = V/tau

where V is proton volume and tau is a time constant

tau = 5.1315 ns

For Coulomb repulsion of protons, W1 is used to scale the time constant tau to become a faster time constant, tau_e

tau_e = tau / W1 = 3.810615*10^-29 seconds

That is how much time a proton consumes while producing its own volume in space of the electromagnetic continuum. The space is Ex*Ey*Ez. The time is called Ht in the electricity continuum.

**Force formula replaces Coulomb formula**The force between a number N1 of charges at a distance R from N2

charges is now expressed by the proton radius r using 8 dimensions:

f = (r^2) N1 N2 (2^8) meter^3 / (R second)^2

This uses r=0.95fm.

When R = 1 meter, two protons repel with

f = 256 r^2 = 2.31 * 10^-28 Newtons

the simple formula gives the right answer

without k, Coulomb's Constant.

Coulomb's Constant is obsoleted by r and the

Gravity Volume Theory in 8D

$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$

Begin February 16, 2017

Numerical verification of neo-Maxwell Magnitudes

2/16/2017 acf see Jan. 20 formulas jpeg manuscript

The following test of the electromagnetic relation to gravity

is to verify the precision, compared to old science of

2013 and the past. The Gravity Volume Theory is giving

correct answers using ideas for a traction from gravity to EM.

Here are Maxwell's variables to be examined:

E

q charge

epsilon permittivity

D

mu permeability

B

H

f force between repelling protons

The charge q was defined after its formula was

found inside the E field intensity equation. The following verification

of the E magnitude formula uses q as a factor. The inner details of the

charge area q are left as the next task after E.

Seven digits of precision are used.

$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$

E : Electric Field = meter/sec^2 = Volt/meter

$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$

see geometric reasoning in ref 1

see Periodic Table of Units of Measure for primitive units.

**E = Numerator / Denominator****Num = r^2 2^8 n meter^6****Den = R^2 q second^2**r = 0.950000 fm = proton radius from negative infinity

R = 1.000000 meter = test is normalized, n=1 per meter^3

tau = 5.131534 ns = conservation of continuum constant

tau_e = G tau / k = 3.810615 * 10^-29 econd

q = 1.6021765 * 10^-19 eter^2

q is in Coulombs

econd is dimension 5, eter is 6, 7, or 8. See ref 1.

G is the Newton constant, k is the Coulomb Constant

Num = 231.04*10^-30

Den = 1.6021765*10^-19

E = 144.2038*10^-11 meter/sec^2

expected value at 1 meter for 1 proton per cubic meter

is E=f/q=qk/R^2 = qk = 1.6*8.99*10^(-19+9) = 14.41734*10^-10

error ratio 1.442038/1.441734 = 1.015034

E = 1.442038*10^-9 meter/sec^2 Electric Field Intensity, volts per meter

where a normalized 1 meter distance is used. Also normalized will be:

v = 1 meter per second, t = 1 second, n = 1 particle per cubic meter,

M = 1 paired proton and electron.

$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$

q = charge of proton ~= meter^2 = Coulomb

$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$

see geometric reasoning in essay ref. 1

**q= Numerator / Denominator****Num = sqrt(r^3 * meter)****Den = sqrt(cuberoot(tau_e))*10 second^(-1/6)**Num = sqrt(8.57375*10^-46) = 2.928091*10^-23

Den = sqrt(3.365102*10^-10)*10 = 1.834421*10^-4

q = 1.596193*10^-19 meter^2

$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$

epsilon : permittivity = second^2/meter = Farad/meter

$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$

See geometric reasoning in essay ref. 3

epsilon = Numerator / Denominator

Num = tau_e^2 * 5.22792 meter^2

Den = r^3

Num = 75.91351*10^-58

Den = 0.857375 * 10^-45

epsilon = 88.54178*10^-13 second^2 / meter

$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$

D : Electric Displacement= 1/1 =dimensionless = Coulomb/meter^2

$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$

See geometric reasoning in essay ref. 4. D was

found from multiplying epsilon times E

D = Numerator / Denominator

Num = (tau_e^2) * n * 5.227 * 256

Den = qr

Num = (3.810615*10^-29)^2 * 1338.112

Num = 1.943043*10^(4-58)

Den = 1.522067*10^-34

D = 1.276581*10^-20

expected value = epsilon E = 8.854188*1.442038*10^(-9-12)

D = epsilon E = 1.276807*10^-20 expected dimensionless aspect called displacement

$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$

mu : permeability of free space = meter^-1 = Henry/meter

$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$

See geometric reasoning in essay ref. 5

mu = Numerator / Denominator

Num = r * 6.7878 second

Den = tau meter^2

Num = 6.44841*10^-15

Den = 5.131534*10^-9

mu = 1.256624*10^-6 meter^-1

expected value 1.256637*10^-6 Henry per meter

$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$

H : Magnetic Field Intensity = meter/second = Amp/meter

$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$

See geometric reasoning in essay ref. 7. The H

field intensity formula was forged using the

axiom powers theorem. That allows a theoretician

to exponentiate r and tau to any power when

justified by a reason.

H = Numerator / Denominator

Num =sqrt(3 r tau ) Mv

Den = v1

v1 is 1 meter per second for this normalized test.

M=1, number of proton electron pairs

Num = sqrt(14.62487*10^-24)

Num = 3.824247*10^-12

H = 3.824247*10^-12 meter per second

Expected value for H: E/H is Z, the characteristic

impedance of free space.

Z = 376.7303 ohms = E/H

H = E/376.7303

E = 1.442038*10^-9

H expected = 0.003827773*10-9

H expected = 3.827773*10-12 Amps per meter

$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$

B : Magnetic flux density = second^-1 = Webers/meter^2

$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$

See geometric reasoning in essay ref. 6

B = Numerator / Denominator

Num = sqrt(r^3) * 11.7568

Den = sqrt(tau)

Num = sqrt(9.5^3 * 10^-48)*11.7568

Num = 344.25046*10^-24

Den = 7.163472*10^-5

B = 4.805637*10^-20 per second

expected values B= mu H

B = 4 pi * 10^-7 * (3.824247*10^-12 )

B = 4.805692*10^-20 Webers per square meter

$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$

force = qE = meter^3 / second^2 = Newton

$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$

See geometric reasoning in essay ref. 8. That essay is about

the force with which two protons repel, based on gravity

volume theory. The radius r and time constant tau are used

as quantum numbers.

f = Numerator / Denominator = qE

Num = r^2 2^8 N1 N2 meter^6

Den = R^2 second^2 = 1

Num = 231.04*10^-30

f = 2.3104*10^-28 Newtons

where N1 and N2 are the numbers of charged particles

in two objects separated by a distance R. N1 = 1 for

this normalized test. N2=1.

Auxilliary Relations

**Atomic Scale Relation**m/(alpha r) = q/(4 pi a) = 2.41 Angstroms

**Cross-Continuum Relation**alpha = a second / (tau meter * sqrt(2))

Time Constant to Conserve Continuum

tau = NV second / (zA)

N is number of baryons in star, V is proton volume,

z is height fallen in 1 second, A is area of star at radius R.

**Mass ratio for proton/ electron**mp / me = q^3 alpha r k pi / h^2

a = Bohr Radius

alpha = fine structure constant 1/137.03

m is proton mass

References

1 Protons Repel protons due to space growth

2

3

4

5

6

7

8

February 17, 2017

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